I’m connecting to the internet through VPN on iOS, knowing that the VPN by itself isn’t a sufficient tool so in addition to other privacy practices. I was wondering if the VPN component has any meaning at all given that iCloud and other apps log in and communicate with their servers. So they see the VPN server IP, along with my login, so they associate my identity with that server/IP (?). And if several services share information then all of them can know who I am given my connection from a certain IP and other potential metadata leakage.
Is there any truth in this? Is it also applicable to desktop setup where I connect to multiple services by VPN? If so, is there any way to address that to improve privacy?