Heads is an open source custom firmware and OS configuration for laptops and servers that aims to provide slightly better physical security and protection for data on the system. Unlike Tails, which aims to be a stateless OS that leaves no trace on the computer of its presence, Heads is intended for the case where you need to store data and state on the computer. It is influenced by several years of firmware vulnerability research (Thunderstrike and Thunderstrike 2) as well as many other researchers’ work (“Hardening hardware and choosing a #goodBIOS” by Peter Stuge, “Beyond anti evil maid” by Matthew Garret, “Towards (reasonably) trustworthy x86 laptops” by Joanna Rutkowska, “LightEater malware seek GPG keys in Tails” by Kallenberg and Kovah, etc.).
Heads is not just another Linux distribution – it combines physical hardening of specific hardware platforms and flash security features with custom coreboot firmware and a Linux boot loader in ROM. This moves the root of trust into the write-protected region of the SPI flash and prevents further software modifications to the bootup code (and on platforms that support it, Bootguard can protect against many hardware attacks as well). Controlling the first instruction the CPU executes allows Heads to measure every step of the boot firmware and configuration into the TPM, which makes it possible to attest to the user or a remote system that the machine has not been tampered with. While modern Intel CPUs require binary blobs to boot, these non-Free components are included in the measurements and are at least guaranteed to be unchanging. Once the system is in a known good state, the TPM is used as a hardware key storage to decrypt the drive.
Additionally, the hypervisor, kernel and initrd images are signed by keys controlled by the user, and the OS uses a signed, immutable root filesystem so that any software exploits that attempt to gain persistence will be detected. While all of these firmware and software changes don’t secure the system against every possible attack vector, they address several classes of attacks against the boot process and physical hardware that have been neglected in traditional installations, hopefully raising the difficulty beyond what most attackers are willing to spend.
Great project, but extraordinarily difficult to implement. You need to be an electrical engineer to get this firmware on your machine.
A much easier alternative that does not require a degree in electrical engineering, would be to buy a laptop that already has Coreboot firmware, such as a Purism laptops.
Alternatively, if flashing the BIOS and disabling the Intel Management Engine, isn’t that important, then you could install Heads OS instead, as an alternative to Tails, sadly though it seems to be abandoned as the last commit in March 2019.